Making the right decision is the biggest challenge that designers, managers, and innovators face, especially when there can be more than one possible choice to select from and multiple factors that need to be evaluated to make the right decision. The Decision Matrix Analysis (also known as the Grid Analysis and Pugh Matrix Analysis) allows you to achieve this target by providing a measurable method to select a specific choice between many based evaluation values. For example, if you would like to buy a laptop and need to ensure you choose the right product based on criteria that reflect the required features that meet your needs and daily usage. In this example and similar cases, the Decision Matrix can provide a quick and easy method to identify the suitable device to buy.
Previously, we explored the Decision Tree as a tool for decision-making. It needs time and knowledge to evaluate each choice’s weighted rates and don’t focus on the features associated with each option. This latter method is more suitable for complex decisions that involve multiple factors and stakeholders. The Business Directory defines the Decision Matrix Analysis as:
“a table used in evaluating possible alternatives to a course of action.”
The Decision Matrix depends on creating a weighted value for each choice, and the sum of all these values enables users to compare the highest rated options. The tool relies on creating a Decision Matrix table where the rows represent the criteria or the features that need to be evaluated, while the columns represent the different choices. You can download the Designorate Decision Matrix template in Excel spreadsheet format.
Creating the Decision Matrix
In this example, we will learn how to create a Decision Matrix to evaluate a number of innovative ideas and make a decision about which idea is viable, can be selected as a new project and will lead to a successful product for the company. In this example, we will name the ideas (Idea 1, 2,3…etc.), and set the evaluation criteria to the following:
- Competency refers to how the new product competes in the market
- Cost refers to the cost required to adopt the new idea
- Viability determines if the idea is applicable in real life
- Desirability refers to how the consumer will accept and interact with the new idea
- Alignment refers to how the idea aligns with the company production strategy
Create a table where the columns represent the evaluation criteria above, and the rows include the choices. In this example, the choices will be Idea A, B, C, and D.
Establish a rating scale for each criterion. The rating should range from 1= less importance and 5= high importance. Then, add these rates under each criterion in the table. The figure below shows that the competency got 3, cost= 4, viability=5, desirability= 4, and alignment=2.
Now, you need to rate each idea based on each criterion. The rating is again from 1 to 5. 1 means the idea is least qualified based on the chosen criteria. 5 means that the idea is very qualified in terms of the selected criteria. For example, Idea A was rated 1 based on competency, which means the idea is less desirable in market competency.
Now, we need to calculate the weighted score for each idea based on each criterion. The weighted value is a result of the multiplication of the criteria rank and the idea rank as demonstrated below:
Idea A weight = criteria rank X idea score
The total weighted score should be written in the last column, as seen in the figure below. Then, the ideas are prioritized from the highest score to the lowest score. In this example, Idea A presents an excellent opportunity for the company to achieve innovation in the market. Based on the final result, Idea B is more likely to succeed in the market, while Idea C is the least idea to achieve market success.
In some situations, the final results may vary from the expected choices. In this case, the rating for each criterion should be reviewed and revised as necessary.
The Decision Matrix Analysis presents an accessible and measurable method to take decisions based on the rating and scoring of different criteria and compare the choices based on these criteria. The above template allows you to automatically calculate the weighted rank of each idea and decide which idea to select. This template is based on an Excel spreadsheet document. The tool depends more on practising it. It may take some time to adopt it as part of your daily habits, and then it should become easy to use in different situations..